Community Rights to Forested Lands
What are the conditions for success?
In recent years, many governments have been formalizing the rights of local communities and Indigenous Peoples to use and manage forest resources. This is expected to contribute to both sustainable rural development and forest conservation.
Now, with forest tenure reforms on their way in many parts of the world, it is a good time to reflect on the experiences so far: Do the reforms have the desired outcomes? What are the barriers and conditions? And how can the outcomes be improved?
To address these questions, Tropenbos International is conducting a review of experiences with community forest rights. We dive into the literature, collect stories of communities, and bring together the perspectives of various experts.
On this page you will find links to the publications so far, including a booklet, interviews, articles, and several short videos. In the months to come we will continue our exploration, including a review of specific community forest tenure models in 13 countries. We will share our findings through regular updates on this site. So, come back soon to find out more!
Click here for our booklet on community forest rights, based on a review of the literature
NGOs that support community-based forest conservation often focus on communities that have formal titles to their forest, as this is considered a main condition for success. According to Marieke van der Zon, PhD student at Wageningen University, the importance of having formal titles is overstated. Instead, she stresses that the key to conservation success lies in community-based monitoring and enforcement
The Bolivian government sees community forestry as a way to achieve objectives related to both climate change and development. However, to truly unleash the potential of community forestry, the capacity of communities needs to be strengthened and the regulatory environment needs to be improved, says Humberto Gómez Cerveró.
In Viet Nam, large areas of forests are traditionally managed by ethnic minorities. Allocating forest lands to these communities can result in better forest management, contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation goals, says Tran Nam Thang of Tropenbos Viet Nam.
The Filipino government can generate new momentum and resources for its longstanding community-based forest management programme, by placing it more centrally in its climate policies. This could benefit forest-dependent communities, but only if mistakes from the past are not repeated, argues Heidi Mendoza. It requires a better understanding of the conditions and constraints for community forestry.
With a forest cover of 93%, Suriname is the most forested country on the globe. Its forests are home to five Indigenous Peoples, who have been living there since long before the country became occupied by Europeans. Next to the Indigenous Peoples, Suriname’s forests are populated by Maroon communities who mostly live along the rivers. They are descendants of enslaved Africans who fled the colonial Dutch plantations and established independent communities deep in the interior rainforests, where they could not be found. Today, there are a total of six Maroon tribes, spread over hundreds of villages, making up almost 14% of the population. Both the Indigenous and Maroon communities depend on the forest for their food, medicines and construction material. Also, they are increasingly involved in commercial timber extraction.
With around 4.3 million hectares of lowland tropical forest, Liberia is the most forested country in West Africa. Liberia’s forestry sector contributes significantly to the national economy. Moreover, about one-third of the population lives in forested areas, many of whom depend on forests for their livelihoods. The government has developed a legal framework, which recognises customary rights of local communities to access and manage forests. Crucial in this has been the Community Rights Law of 2009.
Earlier this year, three communities in the Tshopo province of DR Congo received forest concession titles. The government and NGOs believe that these will help decrease deforestation and poverty, but researchers have casted doubts whether these expectations are realistic. Alphonse Maindo, Director of Tropenbos DRC, is cautiously optimistic.
Indigenous groups control a significant portion of the land in Colombia. This is good news for the forest, as the Indigenous worldview is based on the idea that people are an integrated part of nature. But this does not necessarily mean they reject modernity. There is a need to cherish and pass on Indigenous culture, while at the same time taking local development aspirations seriously, according to Carlos Rodriguez, director of Tropenbos Colombia.
In 2014, the Indonesian government started an ambitious social forestry program, aiming to provide communities with legal permits to manage and use forests located on state lands. As of March 2019, around 2.5 million hectares of land were titled under the program.
In Colombia, the government recognises the right of Indigenous groups to use and manage their forests in Indigenous territories, called 'resguardos'. In this video Indigenous people and peasants talk about their perceptions of the forest, and how they can learn from each other.
After having received a village forest permit, the village of Laman Satong in West Kalimantan can earn money from its forest by selling carbon credits. However, the money should not be the prime motivation to protect the forest, according to one of the village’s customary elders.
In Indonesia, local communities can apply for a village forest permit, which gives them the right to use and manage forests that are located on state lands. In theory, this provides an incentive for sustainable forest management, which in turn generates income for the community. In practice, it is not always that easy. In this video Yohanes Dogol, the head of the village forest committee of Laman Satong in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, describes some of the challenges they are facing.
Laman Satong is a small village located on the foot of two forested hills in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The forests are formally owned by the government, but in 2011 the community successfully applied for a so-called village forest permit, giving them the legal right to sell forest products for a period of 35 years.
In Indonesia, forest tenure has long been a source of conflict. About two thirds of the country's terrestrial area is classified as state-forest land, even though local people have been living there for many generations. When the government allocates these areas for production or conservation purposes, local people face the threat of losing access to their traditional territories. To resolve this, the Indonesian government launched an ambitious social forestry program in 2014, giving communities formal rights to use and manage forests that are located on state land. Significant progress has been made, but many challenges remain. This video introduces the program and highlights some of the conditions for success.
The formalization of forest tenure rights of Indigenous people and local communities is expected to contribute to forest conservation, livelihood improvement and local self-determination. But formalization alone is not enough. More attention is needed for the conditions that must be in place for these expectations to materialize.
Community forestry has the potential to contribute to sustainable livelihoods for people living in and near forests. However, it is not uncommon that a large part of the benefits of collectively managed forests end up in the pockets of local elites. Civil society organizations (CSOs) therefore support communities to strengthen their internal governance processes and promote equitable benefit sharing. This raises complex questions, such as: Who decides what is fair? And how do new governance structures relate to customary decision making?
In Suriname, income from logging within community forests goes mostly to companies and village leaders, rather than to community members. This was one of the conclusions of a study conducted by Tropenbos Suriname in 2020. It prompted 14 indigenous communities to request training in benefit sharing.
Over the last couple of decades, many governments have formalized the forest rights of local communities and indigenous peoples, with the expectation that this would contribute to both conservation and sustainable development. With forest tenure reforms underway, this is a good time to reflect on the experiences so far: Have these reforms led to the desired outcomes? And, what are the conditions for success?
In recent years, the call for the legal recognition of community rights to forests has been growing stronger. It is put forward as the key to combatting deforestation, climate change and poverty. The formalization of community forest rights has a better chance of achieving those objectives, when the rights are adapted to local needs, and accompanied with support for livelihood development.
Over the last couple of decades, governments all over the world introduced forest tenure reforms. A key element of these reforms is to grant forest rights to local communities and indigenous peoples, which is expected to contribute to local development objectives as well as conservation. So far, however, the outcomes have been mixed.