Many governments have policies in place that make it possible for Indigenous and local communities to apply for forest tenure rights. This figure shows the impact pathways through which such policies can contribute to improved livelihoods, forest conservation and local self-determination. Whether these pathways materialize depends on the conditions mentioned in italics. NGOs and governments play a key role to ensure these conditions are in place. The figure can function as a theory of change to help them with planning, monitoring and evaluating related policies and practices.